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Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian and Herzegovinian Medical Students' Association (BoHeMSA)
Bosniaandherzegovina.jpg Bohemsa.jpg
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Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, between Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro. Comparatively, Bosnia and Herzegovina is slightly smaller than the state of West Virginia, with a total area of 51,129 sq km (19,741 sq mi). Bosnia and Herzegovina shares boundaries with Croatia on the N , W , and S , Serbia and Montenegro on the E , and the Adriatic Sea on the S , with a total boundary length of 1,389 km (863 mi). Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital city, Sarajevo, is located near the center of the country.


Participating cities (LC's) Sarajevo

Mostar

Tuzla

Languages Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Currency (how much is a Bigmac?) Konvertible Mark-KM. Big Mac= 5 KM (3.00$/2.50€)
Time zone GMT+1
Number of Doctors and beds per 1000 people 3.49
Member of IFMSA since... enter year
Number of incoming students per year 30 - 40
Who is our NEO? Adi Kovacevic
Our official website / Forum / Facebook group http://www.bohemsa.org/
Come for exchange!
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Welcome Note

Hello and welcome! We hope that the information found on this wiki page will be usefull!!



Overview

Identification

The name "Bosnia" is derived from the Bosna River, which cuts through the region. Herzegovina takes its name from the word herceg, which designated the duke who ruled the southern part of the region until the Ottoman invasion in the fifteenth century. The two regions are culturally indistinguishable and for much of their history have been united under one government. Although cultural variations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are minimal, cultural identity is currently extremely divisive. The three main groups are Muslims (Bosniacs), Serbs, and Croats. Before the recent civil war, many areas of the country had mixed populations; now the population has become much more homogeneous in most regions.

Demography

The population was 4,364,574 in 1991. A U.S. estimate of the population in July 2000 was 3,835,777; however, that figure is not reliable as a result of dislocations and deaths from military activity and ethnic cleansing. In 1991, approximately 44 percent of the people were Bosniac, 31 percent were Serb, 17 percent were Croat, 5.5 percent were Yugoslav (of mixed ethnicity), and 2.5 percent were of other ethnicities. Since that time, the Bosniac population has declined and that of the Serbs has risen because of ethnic cleansing by the Serbian army. (The terms "Bosniac" and "Muslim" often are used interchangeably; "Bosniac" refers more explicitly to an ethnicity, to avoid confusion with the term "Muslim," which refers to any follower of the Islamic faith.)

Since 1995, the country has been internally divided into a Bosniac/Croat Federation, which controls 51 percent of the land and whose majority is Bosniac and Croat, and a Serb Republic, which has the other 49 percent and has a Serb majority. Herzegovina, which borders Croatia, has historically had a Croat majority.

Linguistic Affiliation

Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian are virtually identical; the distinction among them is a matter of identity politics. Serbians write their language in the Cyrillic alphabet, whereas Croatian and Bosnian use the Latin script. Turkish and Albanian are spoken by a small minority.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. Forty percent of the population is Muslim, 31 percent is Eastern Orthodox, 15 percent is Roman Catholic, and 4 percent is Protestant; 10 percent of the people follow other religions. Most of the population is not particularly observant, but religion is an important aspect of national identity. (Islam is associated with the Bosniacs, Eastern Orthodox with the Serbs, and Catholicism with the Croatians.)

Icons, which are images representing Christ, angels, saints, and other holy figures, hold an important place in Orthodox practice and are considered a connection between the earthly and spiritual realms.

Religious Practitioners. The central religious figures in Islam are called muezzins, scholars of the Koran who call the faithful to prayer. The Koran is seen as the ultimate authority in the religion. In the Eastern Orthodox religion, priests are the primary religious authorities; they are permitted to marry. The Eastern Orthodox religion does not recognize the authority of the Pope but follows a group of patriarchs who have equal status.

Rituals and Holy Places. Mosques are Muslim houses of worship. It is customary to remove one's shoes before entering. The prayer hall has no pews or seats; instead, worshipers kneel on prayer rugs. After Ramadan, people exchange small gifts, visit friends, and have a large family meal.

Eastern Orthodox religious ceremonies are held in elaborate, beautifully designed churches, many of which date back hundreds of years. Each family has a patron saint who is honored once a year in a large celebration called Krsna Slava. A candle is lit in the saint's honor, and special foods are consumed. Christmas (observed 6 and 7 January in the Orthodox Church) is a major holiday. Christmas Eve, called Badnje Vece, is celebrated with a large bonfire in the churchyard and the singing of hymns. In addition to church services, Easter is celebrated by dying eggs and performing traditional kolo dances.



Our health care system

Primary care is provided through health centers ( dom zdravlyas ) and outpatient branches called ambulantas. As of 1999 there were 87 dom zdravlyas in the Bosnian Federation, staffed by general practitioners and nurses, providing primary care, preventive care, health education, and rehabilitation. Among the secondary and tertiary care facilities in the Republika Srpska is one in Banja Luka that has 1,327 beds and one in Sarajevo with 776 beds. The country has five medical schools. As of 1999 public, health expenditure was estimated at 8% of GDP.


The hospitals

These are our major hospitals...

1. Clinical Center University of Sarajevo - Sarajevo (KCUS)

2. Clinical Hospital Mostar - Mostar

3. Clinical Hospital "Paprikovac" - Banja Luka



Our medical education

STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pre-higher education:

Duration of compulsory education:

Age of entry: 6

Age of exit: 15

Structure of school system:


Primary

Type of school providing this education: Primary school (osnovna škola)

Length of program in years: 9

Age level from: 6 to: 15

General Secondary

Type of school providing this education: General Secondary School, Art School and Theology School (Gymnazija, umjetničke i vjerske škole)

Length of program in years: 4

Age level from: 15 to: 19

Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma (Secondary School Leaving Certificate)

Specialized Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Vocational and Technical Schools (srednje stručne i tehničke škole)

Age level from: 15 to: 19

Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma


School education:


Primary education lasts for nine years.The pupils enrol in primary education when they are between 5 and 6 years old. Secondary education is provided by general, vocational and technical secondary schools. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools, art schools and theology schools obtain the Diploma o završenoj srednjoj školi and can enrol in any faculty or academy by passing the qualification examination prescribed by the institution. Vocational secondary schools offer courses lasting for three years and including a period of practical instruction. Technical secondary schools offer courses lasting for four years. Pupils graduating from technical secondary schools obtain the Diploma and can enrol in any Faculty or Academy by passing the qualification examination prescribed by the Institution.

Higher education

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina has eight universities: the University of Sarajevo, the University of Banja Luka, the University of Tuzla, the University of Džemal Bijedić (East Mostar), the University of Mostar (West Mostar), the University of Bihać, the University of Zenica and the University of East Sarajevo. All higher education activities are subject to national (Republic Srpska) or cantonal (in the Federation of B&H) laws on higher education.


University level studies:

University level first stage: First degree: Diploma Visokog obrazovanja:

Courses leading to the Diploma Visokog obrazovanja last from three to six years.

University level second stage: Second degree: Magister:

Courses leading to the Magister require two years' further study and the defence of a thesis.

University level third stage: Third degree: Doktorat:

The Doctorate (PhD) is the highest scientific degree. It is the result of independent research. The public defence of a doctoral thesis is required.


Grading system

Main grading system used by higher education institutions

Full Description: Main grading system used at Universities of Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Džemal Bijedić, Bihać, Zenica and East Sarajevo: 5-10 scale with 6 as minimum pass.

Highest on scale: 10

Pass/fail level: 6

Lowest on scale: 5

Other main grading systems

Main grading system used by University of Mostar: 1-5 scale with 2 as minimum pass.

Food :)

Food in Daily Life. Bosnian food has been influenced by both Turkish and Eastern European cuisine. Grilled meat is popular, as are cabbage-based dishes. Bosanski Ionac is a cabbage and meat stew. Cevapcici are lamb sausages that often are eaten with a flat bread called somun. Pastries, both sweet and savory, are common; burek and pida (layered cheese or meat pies), zeljanica (spinach pie), and sirnica (cheese pie) are served as main dishes. Baklava, a Turkish pastry made of phyllo dough layered with nuts and honey, is a popular dessert, as is an apple cake called tufahije. Kefir, a thin yogurt drink, is popular, as are Turkish coffee and a kind of tea called salep. Homemade brandy, called rakija, is a popular alcoholic drink. Alcohol use is down since the rise in Muslim influence, and in certain areas of the country drinking has been prohibited.



Accommodation & Boarding

Either student flats or Dormitory


Social program


Local & National transportation

Railways: total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified) standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)

Highways: total: 21,846 km paved: 11,424 km unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited because of no agreement with neighboring countries (2004) Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Airports: 27 (2003 est.)



Weather

Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast.


Social life


Exchange Conditions

Feedback


Cities offered for exchange

Sarajevo (Head of BoHeMSA)

Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an estimated population of over 311,161 people within its administrative limits. It is also the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, as well as the center of the Sarajevo Canton. The Sarajevo Macro Region coveres 8.699,9 km2 which represents around 17% of the total surface area of Bosnia and Herzegovina and it has around 700,000 inhabitants. -Sarajevo is located in the Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans. Sarajevo is the leading business and cultural centre of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts contribute to its status as Bosnia and Herzegovina's major economic centre.




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History

-The city is historically famous for its traditional religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Judaism coexisting there for centuries. Due to this long and rich history of religious variety, Sarajevo is often called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans".

Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885 Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, the first being San Francisco, California.

- In 1914 it was the site of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria that sparked World War I. Seventy years later, it hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics and Sarajevo is the Olimpic city. -For nearly four years, from 1992–1996, the city suffered from a siege during the Bosnian War for independence. -Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The travel guide series, Lonely Planet, has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo became the first city outside the European Union to be nominated for the European Capital of Culture in 2014.

Today

- Sarajevo is one of the fastest developing cities in the region. Various new modern buildings have been built, most significantly the Bosmal City Center, BBI Center and the Avaz Twist Tower which is the tallest skyscraper in the Balkans. A new highway was recently (2006–2011) completed between Sarajevo and the city of Kakanj. Due to growth in population, tourism and airport traffic the service sector in the city is developing fast and welcoming new investors from various businesses. -The near-future Sarajevo will have one the most representable commercial infrastructure in South-East Europe. The Sarajevo City Center will be one of the biggest and most modern shopping and business centres in South-East Europe upon its completion in 2012. - Airport Center Sarajevo which will be connected directly to the new airport terminal will offer a great variety of brands, products and services.

Climate

-Sarajevo's climate exhibits influences of oceanic, humid continental and humid subtropical zones, with four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation.The proximity of the Adriatic Sea moderates Sarajevo's climate somewhat, although the mountains to the south of the city greatly reduce this maritime influence. The average yearly temperature is 13.5 °C (56 °F), with January (0.5 °C (32.9 °F) , being the coldest month of the year and July (22.0 °C (71.6 °F), the warmest.

Tuzla

Tuzla is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. After Sarajevo and Banja Luka, it is the third largest city in the country. The name "Tuzla" is the Turkish word for salt mine, and refers to the extensive salt deposits found underneath the city. The city of Tuzla has Europe's only salt lake as part of its central park and also has around 100,000 people visiting its shores every year. Tuzla is located in the northeastern part of Bosnia, settled just underneath the Majevica mountain range, on the Jala river. The climate is moderate continental. Tuzla is home to the University of Tuzla, with 16,500 students, and also the American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The University was founded in 1958. It became a proper university in 1976, and today is one of the major institutions of higher learning in Bosnia.


The Public Health Institution University Clinical Center Tuzla (UCC Tuzla) is a modern medical institution which uses advanced diagnostic procedures, follows developments in medicine, continually introduces new operational methods, and works on continuous education of its personnel. Furthermore, it is an institution at which high quality scientific research is performed. It is recognized for its good organization, efficiency, and economy, as well as for developing and mastering the knowledge and skills in the field of highly differentiated medical methods. All this was achieved by a multidisciplinary approach and team work in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. With modern technology and high standards in the application of diagnostic and treatment procedures, the UCC Tuzla is aiming to become a regional leader in the provision of healthcare for the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and beyond. The Public Health Institution University Clinical Center Tuzla has a total of 37 organizational units: 19 Clinics, 2 Polyclinics, 2 Institutes, the Center for Palliative Care, Emergency Room, Hospital Pharmacy, 6 Sectors and 5 Services.


Several sports teams from Tuzla have participated in international competitions. Almost all of Tuzla's sports teams are named Sloboda, meaning freedom, including football, basketball, karate and many others.

There are a lot of interesing things to visit or to do in our city  There are lot of sacral objects, The Franciscan Monastery of the Holy Apostles Saint Peter and Paul, the Orthodox Cathedral, and about twenty mosques, the loveliest and the oldest being the one in the hills, Dzindicka dzamija (Dzindi's mosque).

The National Theatre was built in 1898 during Austro-Hungarian rule and is the oldest in the country. The Portrait Gallery has continuous exhibitions of work by local and international artists.Ismet Mujezinovic's Gallery is mainly dedicated to Mr Mujezinovic himself. He was a painter from Tuzla, famous enough to have a gallery established in his name and a monument erected in his honour. The Eastern Bosnia exhibits archaeological, ethnological, historical and artistic pieces and artifacts from the whole region.

The town has several other attractive picnic locations:Ilincica is the closest to town; Lake Modrac, a massive lake lined with beaches, restaurants and bed and breakfasts, attracts the biggest crowds; Konjuh Mountainis the best area if you're looking to do some hikingTake a cab around the city for low cost. Tuzla has a reliable city bus system comprised of two zones. You can also walk around the city for the best sightseeing opportunities.


The most attractive locations for all generations in Tuzla are Soni trg (The Salt Market) and Trg slobode (Freedom Square). During the night, Centralni park (Central park) near Korzo is the most popular place to go out for couples. It is a quiet place so you can talk in peace. The cult place where thousands of young people spend their nightlife is called "Jala’’. This place became recognizable not only in Tuzla but wider. Many young people from other Counties who visit Tuzla, spend their nightlife mostly by the river Jala. The ones who prefer listening to music and dancing can enjoy themselves in some of Tuzla clubs with rich programmes ( Club Viva, Disco club Roma, Dom mladih – Youth house, Palma Club..)

The main walking street is called Korzo, it is a lively bustling always-populated shopping and eating area. Enjoy the pedestrianized streets for a good walk and to take in the sights along the way. You’ll find street cafes, musicians, and lots of opportunities for shopping! When you reach the main square, you ‘ll see the big fountain located in the center that provides the city with water.

Eating maniacs, here we go  You can enjoy in local or international meals. The restaurants serve traditional Bosnian deserts like tufahiya (apples soaked in honey and stuffed with wipped cream and nut), cevapi - traditional Bosnian kebabs and different kinds of pie (burek, sirnica, krompirusa, zeljanica) etc.You can visit „Huso&Haso“, „Limenka“ or Sezam, they make a great cevapi there, or if you're a fan of Italian kitchen, you should visit „Cittá del sale“, an Italian restaurant in the heart of town.If you are hungry, don't worry, anybody in Tuzla can tell you where to go 

The summer in Tuzla is just wonderful. People are out and drinking coffee and just hanging out with their friends. And it's like this all day, everyday.There is a popular beer called Tuzlansko pivo. Another popular drinking beverage is Turkish coffee, which can be bought in every bar, coffee shop or fast food place.There are so many interesting summer events every year.For example, on September 1, 2007, 6980 couples kissed for 10 seconds in Tuzla, Bosnia erasing the previous Guinness World kissing Records of the Philippines and Hungary. In 2010, Tuzla achieved the largest waltz with 1,510 couples dancing and in 2011, more than 3,000 Bosnians have broken a Guinness world record in aqua aerobics at an artificial lake in Tuzla.

The citizens of Tuzla are creative, always ready for new ideas and actions, and of course, like the rest of Bosnian people, they got a great sense of humour, so you will never be bored here, that is for sure  You will meet so many kind, helpful and friendly people there and you will have a great time, that is guaranteed 


Mostar

Welcome to the Mostar


Who we are? BoHeMSA, LC Mostar , Bosnian and Herzegovinian Medical Student’s Association, Local Committee Mostar

What do we represent? MOSTAR - The largest and one of the most important cities in the Herzegovina region and the center of the Herzegovina- Neretva Canton of the Federation.

SPECIFICATIONS OF OUR TOWN: GENERAL: Mostar is situated on the Neretva river and is the fifth-largest city in the country. It was named after the bridge keepers who in the medieval times guarded the „Stari Most” (Old Bridge) over Neretva river. The Old Bridge is one of the city's most recognizable landmarks.

HISTORY: The name of Mostar was first mentioned in a document dating from 1474, taking its name from the bridge-keepers. Mostar is indirectly referred to in a charter of King Alfonso V of Aragon dating from 1454 as Pons (Bridge), for a bridge had already been built there. In 1468 Mostar came under Ottoman rule and the urbanization of the settlement began. Following the unwritten oriental rule, the town was organized into two distinct areas: „čaršija”, the crafts and commercial centre of the settlement, and „mahala” or a residential area. In 1468 Mostar acquired the name „Köprühisar,” meaning fortress at the bridge, at the centre of which was a cluster of 15 houses. The town was fortified between the years 1520 and 1566, and the wooden bridge was rebuilt in stone. The stone bridge, the Old Bridge (Stari Most), was erected in 1566 on the orders of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman ruler.In the late 16th century, Mostar was the chief administrative city for the Ottoman Empire in the Herzegovina region. The Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed Mostar in 1878 and it ruled there until the aftermath of World War I in 1918. After the World War II, Mostar developed a production of plastics (fundamentally used in toilet seats) tobacco, bauxite, wine, aircraft and aluminium products. The city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered economically during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Between 1992 and 1993, after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia, the town was subject to an 18 month siege. On November 18, 1991, the Croatian Democratic Union branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina, proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate „political, cultural, economic and territorial whole” on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar was divided into a western part, which was dominated by the Croat forces and an eastern part where the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was largely concentrated with most of the bosniak population being expuled and driven from their homes in western part of the city during the war.

CLIMATE: Mostar, and Herzegovina area in general, have more affinity to the Croatian region of Dalmatia, which can be oppressively hot during the summer. In Mostar, situated along the Neretva River, the coldest month is January, averaging about 42 °F (6 °C), and the warmest month is July, averaging about 78 °F (26 °C). Mostar experiences a relatively dry season from June to September. The remainder of the year is wet and mild.

EDUCATION: Mostar has a number of various educational institutions. These include University of Mostar, University "Džemal Bijedić" of Mostar, United World College in Mostar, nineteen high-schools and twenty four elementary schools. High-schools include sixteen vocational schools and three Gymnasiums. Dzemal Bijedic University is the older of the two state universities and consists of eight faculties. It employs around 250 professors and staff members. According to the Federal Statics Office, Džemal Bijedić University had 4710 students enrolled during the 2010/2011 academic year. The country's higher education reform and the signing of the Bologna Process have forced both universities to put aside their rivalry to some extent and try to make themselves more competitive on a regional level. University of Mostar (Croatian: Sveučilište u Mostaru; Latin: Universitas Studiorum Mostariensis) is the largest university in the city and the only Croatian language university in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Franciscan Theological School, which was founded in 1895 and closed in 1945, was the first higher education institution in Mostar.Today's University seal shows the building of the Franciscan Monastery. University of Mostar Seal. As of 2010/2011 University of Mostar had 9431 students enrolled at ten faculties making it the largest university in the city.

CULTURE: The city excels in the spheres of art, cuisine, music, theater, museums, and literature. The city is the birthplace of many famous artists, including Aleksa Santic, Osman Đikić, Vladimir Ćorović, Svetozar Ćorović, Elisabeth Radó, Ivan Zovko, Predrag Matvejević, Himzo Polovina, Zlatko Ugljen, and Grga Martić. Mostar is also widely celebrated in popular lore, featured frequently as the setting for books, movies, and television programs. Dani Matice Hrvatske is one of city's significant cultural events and it is commonly sponsored by the Croatian Government and the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar Summer is another umbrella event which includes Šantić Poetry Evenings, Mostar Summer Festival and Festival of Bosnia and Herzegovina choirs/ensembles. The city is a home of music festival called Melodije Mostara (Mostar Melodies) which has been held annually since 1995. Theatre festivals include Mostarska Liska (organized by the Croatian National Theatre) and The International Festival of Author Poetics (organized by the Mostar Youth Theatre).

TOURISM: Mostar is an important tourist destination in Bosnia and Herzgovina. Mostar International Airport serves the city as well as the train and bus stations which connect it to a number of national and international destinations. Mostar's old town is an important tourist destination with the Stari Most being its most recognizable feature. Some of the Mostar's noteworthy sites include Bishop’s Ordinariate building, the remains of the Early Christian Basilica Cim, Public Turkish Bath (hammam), clock tower (sahat kula), Synagogue (1889) and Jewish Memorial Cemetery, Nesuh-Aga Vucjaković Mosque, Hadzi-Kurt Mosque or Tabacica, Metropolitan Palace (1908), Karadjoz-Beg Mosque (1557), Orthodox Church, Catholic Church and Franciscan Monastery, Ottoman Residences (16th-19th century), Crooked Bridge Mostar, Tara and Halebija Towers.

The famous traveler Evliya Çelebi wrote in the 17th century that:

„... the bridge is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other. ...I have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge. It is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky...”


So... Come and visit us 