Thank you for your interest in exchange program offered by KMSA! This Wikiscope is prepared to provide with general facts about Korea and to guide you through the specifics of the exchange program. It includes the comprehensive and general explanations of the medical system,services, education and governmental support in the medicine. It also provides every details of the participating universities and hospital to help you prepare for your participation in exchange program in Korea.
I Hope this wikiscope page will assist you to plan effectively for the exchange program in Korea, which will give you a wonderful and unforgettable experience!
National Exchange Officer (2011-2012)
South Korea (i/ˌsaʊθ kəˈriə/), officially the Republic of Korea (ROK, Hangul: 대한민국, Hanja: 大韓民國, pronounced [tɛːhanminɡuk̚] ( listen)), is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China (Mainland China) to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China (Taiwan) to the south. South Korea lies in a humid continental and humid subtropical climate region with a predominantly mountainous terrain. Its territory covers a total area of 99,392 square kilometers and has a population of almost 50 million. The capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of 10,421,782. Archaeological findings show that the Korean Peninsula was occupied by the Lower Paleolithic period. Korean history begins with the founding of Gojoseon in 2333 BC by the legendary Dan-gun. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Silla 668 AD, Korea went through the Goryeo Dynasty and Joseon Dynasty as one nation until the end of the Korean Empire in 1910, when Korea was annexed by Japan. After liberation and occupation by Soviet and U.S. forces at the end of World War II, the nation was divided into North and South Korea. The latter was established in 1948 as a democracy, though political turmoil, and periods of military rule and martial law, were to characterize much of the period until the foundation of the Sixth Republic in 1987. After the invasion of South Korea by forces from the North on 25 June 1950, the resulting war between the two Koreas ended with an Armistice Agreement, but the border between the two nations is the most heavily fortified in the world. After the war, the South Korean economy grew significantly and the country had transformed into a major economy, a full democracy, and a regional power in East Asia. South Korea is a presidential republic consisting of sixteen administrative divisions and is a developed country with a very high standard of living. It is Asia's fourth largest economy and the world's 15th (nominal) or 12th (purchasing power parity) largest economy. The economy is export-driven, with production focusing on electronics, automobiles, ships, machinery, petrochemicals and robotics. South Korea is a member of the United Nations, WTO, OECD and G-20 major economies. It is also a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit.
Our health care system
Healthcare Personnel: Over 91,000 physicians
In South Korea, only authorized healthcare pro- fessionals can provide health services. The Medical Law stipulates that only doctors, dentists, nurses, oriental medical doctors, and midwives licensed by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs (MIHWAF) can provide health services. Nurse’s aides, acupuncturists, and massage thera- pists are described as quasi-medical professionals. As of 2007, there were 91,400 physicians, 23,114 dentists, 16,663 oriental medical doctors, 57,176 pharmacists, 8,587 midwives, and 235, 687 nurses in South Korea. A major problem concerning healthcare resources in South Korea is regional disparitiesin medical services. Most private medical facili- ties are located in urban areas, and around 90% of physicians are concentrated in cities while 80% of the population lives in urban areas.
Healthcare Delivery System: Korean patients have freedom of choice
Korean patients can go to any doctor or any medical institution, including hospitals, which they choose. The referral arrangement system is divided into two steps. The patient can go to any medical practitioner office except specialized general hospitals. If the patient wants to go to a secondary hospital, he/she has to present a referral slip issued by the medical practitioner who diag- nosed him/her first. There are some exceptions: in the case of childbirth, emergency medical care, dental care, rehabilitation, family medicine ser- vices, and hemophiliac disease, the patient can go to any hospital without a referral slip.
Three Arms of Healthcare Security
South Korea’s healthcare security system has three arms: the National Health Insurance Program, Medical Aid Program, and Long-term Care Insur- ance Program.
1. National Health Insurance Program
The first health insurance law in South Korea, the Medical Insurance Act, came into force in December 1963. From July 1977, all companies with more than 500 employees were required to provide a health insurance program and separate health insurance societies were established. In January 1979, the insurance coverage require- ment was expanded to companies with more than 300 employees, public servants, and private school employees. In January 1988, self-employed people in rural areas were included under this system. The year 1989 is the most important year in the history of South Korean National Health Insurance Program. In July, the health insurance program for urban areas was expanded to include the self-employed. It took 12 years from the estab- ishment of the Medical Insurance Act to achieve universal health insurance coverage for all citi- zens. About ten years later, in 2000, all health insurance societies were integrated into a single insurer, the National Health Insurance Program.
2. Medical Aid Program
Around 3.7% of the total population is covered under the Medical Aid Program. As of 2006, the number of people enrolled under the Medical Aid Program is 1,828,627 (3.7%) out of the total national population of 49,238,227.The number of people enrolled in the National Health Insurance Program is 28,445,033 (57.7%) Employee Insured and 18,964,567 (38.6%) Self-employed. The Medical Aid Program was established in 1979 for low-income households after the pro- mulgation of the Medical Aid Act in 1977. Under this program, the Government pays all medical expenses for patients who are unable to pay for health care. After 2004, the Medical Aid Program was expanded to cover patients with rare, intrac- table, and chronic diseases as well as children under the age of 18. The Medical Aid Program is jointly funded by the central and local governments. The MIHWFA sets and annually modifies the criteria for beneficiaries. Local governments select the beneficiaries based on the conditions set by the Ministry. Recently the Government has faced financial difficulty in providing the needed medical ser- vices for low-income people, and changed the system so that the National Health Insurance Program provides partial funding for the Medical Aid Program.
3. Long-term Care Insurance Program
Recently life expectancy in South Korea has increased sharply, rising more than eight years over the past 20 years. Traditionally, taking care of elderly people had been a major family burden in South Korea. To solve this problem, the Gov- ernment introduced a Long-term Care Insurance Program in July 2008 in several locations around the country as a pilot implementation study. It is a social insurance system and currently covers 3.8% of elderly Koreans. Elderly people with serious limitations in per- forming activities of daily living (ADLs) are qualified to apply for the program. For example, those aged 65 years or older, or those aged less than 65 years old but suffer from an age-related disabling condition such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, or paralysis due to stroke, can apply for the program. If they are qualified as a beneficiary, they receive medical treatment ser- vices including baths, laundry, and nursing care. Long-term Care Insurance Program is funded by long-term care insurance contributions paid by the insured, government subsidies, and co-payments by beneficiaries. The Government finances 20% of total long-term care insurance, which is based on a co-payment system. Users of the services pay 15% (in-home services)–20% (institution services) of the expenses for care services. The national government hopes to expand the program to include coverage of elderly people with less serious limitations in performing ADLs.
1. Kangwon National University Hospital Kangwon National University Hospital strives to become the primary medical facility of Gangwon Province. We no longer can allow sick residents of Gangwon to travel to other regions to treat their sickness. The medical level of Kangwon National University Hospital must be improved to allow Gangwon residents to receive quality care which is economical, time-saving, and less stressful.For such to occur, Kangwon National University Hospital aims to provide top level medical care based on advanced medical technologies and up-to-date treatment methodologies while focusing on improving treatment standards and quality which focuses on high-level disease patients and rarity incurableness diseases
Hospital Status Areas of Specialty (total : 30) Family Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Endocrinology, Rheumatology, Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Radiation Oncology, Pathology, Urology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Nephrology, Cardiology, Ophthalmology, Surgery, Radiology, Emergency medicine, Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rehabilitation Medicine, Neuropsychiatry, Orthopedic Surgery, Laboratory Medicine, Dentistry, Dermatology, Hematology and Oncology, Pulmonary, Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (30 areas of specialty)
Facility Size • Land Area : 37,994㎡ • New Annex : 18,608㎡ • Old Annex : 10,979㎡ • Residence : 1,529㎡ • Funeral Home : 2,079㎡ • Administrative Research : 1,765㎡
Organization Officers 2 / Faculty Members 75 / Clinical Professors 11 / Fellows 5 / Interns,residents 59 Nurses 211 / Pharmacists 9 / Medical Technicians 69 / Facility Technicians 9 Computer Programmers 3 / Patient Affairs 61 / Assistant Nurses 37 Total Employees 581
2. ChungAng University (Seoul) The start of ChungAng University Hospital dates back to June 1968 when the former Sungshim Hospital was opened at Pil-dong, Jung-gu. It changed its name from the ChungAng university Affiliated Hospital to ChungAng University Hospital in Dec. 2004, and moved to Heukseok-dong where ChungAng University is located. The hospital boasts its environment-friendly building with 3 underground floors and 15 aboveground floors built on 22,971㎡ land. The hospital, which has 551 care beds, has renewed and specialized itself over and over again through state of the art medical equipments and impeccable medical information infrastructure used by 1,200 staff including 130 outstanding professors in 23 medical departments. In particular, 11 special centers such as Gastrointestinal center, Urinary Stone center, Heart center have explored these specialized areas further and further, dedicating themselves to nurturing medical experts. Also, The hospital is doing its best for the balanced development of medical services in the local community by holding symposiums for members of the medical community in that area and forging cooperative hospital relations with private medical service practitioners to enhance the health status of people in the local community. On top of that, the hospital fulfills its social responsibility as a university hospital that grows together with the community by participating actively in the free-of-charge medical service provision and developing health promotion programs through agreements with social welfare facilities, public health promotion centers, and relevant institutions. Such efforts of the hospital has paid off, and it was selected as the best hospital at the medical institution appraisal in 2005 organized by Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs and it obtained the best grade in the cerebral apoplexy treatment appraisal in 2007 done by Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Besides, the hospital acquired the excellent grade A in all medical service areas at the medical institution appraisal in 2007 done by Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs. Likewise, the excellency of the hospital has been well recognized externally, but the hospital never remains complacent about its current status and continues to strive to provide better and more satisfactory medical services to people.
Status of Facility Location : 224-1, Heuk Seok-Dong, Dong Jak-Gu, Seoul Land area : 22,971㎡ Floor space : 60,222.96㎡ Hospital : 3 underground floors, 15 aboveground floors Parking capacity : total 608 cars (basement parking, parking tower) Convenient facilities : flower shop, restaurant, convenient store, coffee shop, bakery, bank, medical equipment store, rooms for funeral
Care Bed Status Total number of care beds : 533 care beds Number of rooms for outpatient : 64 rooms Beds for general patient : 496 bed Beds for special patient : 47 bed in intensive care unit (10 beds in premature baby ICU, 6 beds in delivery room, 1 bed for outpatient in Urology, 15 beds in Neurology) Neonatal room : 32 beds Artificial kidney center : 20 beds Emergency Medical Center : 33 beds Operation room : 11 rooms
3. Myungji Hospital
Myungji Hospital(Kwandong University) Health System and Hospitals have been at the forefront of medicine since 1987, when we cared for our first patients. Our mission is to provide superior healthcare in a compassionate manner, ever mindful of each patient's dignity and individuality. To accomplish our mission, we call upon the skills and expertise of all who work together to advance medical innovation, serve the health needs of the community, and further the knowledge of those dedicated to caring.
Facilities/Physical Plant Lot Area : 20,385.7㎡ Building Area : 8,904.3㎡ Gross Floor Area : 57,447.3㎡ Total Number of Beds : 550
Faculty Doctors 249 / Nurses 452 / Position of Health 137 / Regular government service 142 / Position of Support 192 / Medical Stdent 300
Information of Clinical Department Clinical Department 31 Special Centers 11 Special Clinics 17
4. Ajou University Hospital
Since it opened in 1994, Ajou University Hospital has expanded to accommodate 1,083 patient beds, other facilities including 92 Intensive Care Units, 18 operating rooms and the state-of-the-art medical equipment.
Thus, Ajou University Hospital has become the best and foremost major hospital providing the utmost tertiary medical service.
The history of Ajou University hospital has coexisted with the local community for 12 years.
Introducing talented and experienced medical faculty and staff, spacious and fresh treatment corridors and cutting-edge medical apparatus, Ajou University Hospital has been endlessly serving customers from all over the country during the past 12 years.
Introduction of the most up-to-date medical equipments such as PET CT, MD CT, FULL PACS, the establishment of an emergency center for the Southern Gyeonggi Province, and promotion for the Cancer Center and various professional clinics are the result of combined effort and dedication of all the Ajou University Hospital staff and faculty, and which also provide incentive for all employees working for the university education hospital and general and professional medical treatment facility (the 3 rd tier treatment facility)
Moreover, in 2011, Ajou University Hospital is certified by the Joint Commision International(JCI),the international arm of the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO), a U.S.-based accreditation agency that accredits 18,000 health care organizations in the United States. JCI uses the same standards and accreditation procedures as JCAHO, so accreditation by this agency guarantees that the quality of care at the accredited foreign hospital is comparable to the quality of care that you would expect from a hospital in US.
Also, the hospital's Well-being center, which will take care of the patients.
Location San 5, Wonchon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-721
Facility General wards, located on the 4th through the top 13th floors, comprises of 1,083 beds in 90 six-bed rooms, 25 four-bed rooms, 91 semi-private rooms and 62 private rooms and 2 VIP suites. The general wards have a floor space of 784,585 square feet.
Operationg rooms currently Ajou University Hospital manages 18 operating rooms in close association with the Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine.
Intensive Care Unit Ajou University Hospital maintains one of the top ICU in the country. The hospital mantains 5 ICUs supported 24 hours a day by specialized staff to provide intensie care for patients from internal medicine, general surgery, neurology, cardiology, or for any specialized care a patient requires.
Emergency Medical Center it is Ajou University Hospital's crowning achievement, designated in 2002 as the emergency ward for the southern region of Gyeonggi Province. The emergency center occupies a floor space of 1485 square meter, consists of 90 beds.
Staff Faculty members 293 / Medical students 233 + a well-being center which is the 6th biggest hospital in the nation.
Our medical education
Korea's Medical School System There are two kinds of school systems in Korea. The undergraduate program in medical schools in Korea comprises two years of premedical studies followed by four years of the standard medical program(2+4). The graduate program consist four years of undergraduate studies and four years of the standard medical program(4+4). In Korea 41 medical schools and 3068 students(graduated medical school(4+4), 1641/undergraduated medical school (2+4), 1427).
During the first two years of premedical studies, students take all prerequisite coursework in physics, chemistry, biology, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, etc. with other non-medical students, rather than medical subjects. During the four years of the standard medical program, students are required first to take basic medical science courses including anatomy, physiology, parasitology, preventive medicine, and pathology. Upon completion of the basic coursework, they take clinical courses in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, dermatology, and other specialty areas. In the third year of the standard medical program, students enter clinical rotations. Prior to graduating, they sit the national qualification examination for doctors to become a general practitioner after graduation. There are 41 medical schools in South Korea with over 3000 students graduating from the medical schools annually with the appropriate qualifications to practice medicine.
Specialty Program After completing one year of internship and 4 years of residency and passing the qualifying examination for medical specialties administered by KMA, one receives a medical specialist certificate. A certified medical specialist may choose to work as a clinical specialist (generally referred to as "Fellow") for experiences in more specialized research and clinical studies. Although becoming a medical specialist requires at least 11 years, the specialists accounted for 70.3% in 2008 according to the Korea Health care Industry Report 2009.
South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in 1945. Historically, while the culture of Korea has been heavily influenced by that of neighbouring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique and distinct cultural identity from its larger neighbour. The South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs. The industrialization and urbanization of South Korea have brought many changes to the way Korean people live. Changing economics and lifestyles have led to a concentration of population in major cities, especially the capital Seoul, with multi-generational households separating into nuclear family living arrangements.
Korean art has been highly influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism, which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing arts. Korean pottery and porcelain, such as Joseon's baekja and buncheong, andGoryeo's celadon are well known throughout the world. The Korean tea ceremony, pansori, talchum and buchaechum are also notable Korean performing arts. Post-war modern Korean art started to flourish in the 1960s and 1970s, when South Korean Artists took interest in geometrical shapes and intangible subjects. Establishing a harmony between man and nature was also a favorite of this time. Due to social instability, social issues appeared as main subjects in the 1980s. Art was influenced by various international events and exhibits in Korea, and with it brought more diversity. The Olympic Sculpture Garden in 1988, the transposition of the 1993 edition of the Whitney Biennial to Seoul, the creation of the Gwangju Biennale and the Korean Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 1995 were notable events.
Due to South Korea's tumultuous history, construction and destruction has been repeated endlessly, resulting in an interesting melange of architectural styles and designs.Korean traditional architecture is characterized by its harmony with nature. Ancient architects adopted the bracket system and is characterized by thatched roofs and heated floors called ondol. People of the upper classes built bigger houses with elegantly curved tiled roofs with lifting eaves. Traditional architecture can be seen in the palaces and temples, preserved old houses called hanok, and special sites like Hahoe Folk Village, Yangdong Village of Gyeongju and Korean Folk Village. Traditional architecture may also be seen at the nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Korea.
Bulguksa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site Western architecture was first introduced to Korea at the end of the 19th century. Churches, offices for foreign legislation, schools and university buildings were built in new styles. With annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910 the colonial regime intervened in Korea's architectural heritage and Japanese-style modern architecture was imposed. The anti-Japanese sentiment, and the Korean War, led to the destruction of most buildings constructed during that time. Korean architecture entered a new phase of development during the post-Korean War reconstruction, incorporating modern architectural trends and styles. Stimulated by the economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s, active redevelopment saw new horizons in architectural design. In the aftermath of the 1988 Seoul Olympics, South Korea has witnessed a wide variation of styles in its architectural landscape due, in large part, to the opening up of the market to foreign architects. Contemporary architectural efforts have been constantly trying to balance the traditional philosophy of "harmony with nature" and the fast-paced urbanization that the country has been going through in recent years.
Cuisine Korean cuisine, hanguk yori (한국요리; 韓國料理), or hansik (한식; 韓食), has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. The Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Korean citizens have been regulated by a unique culture of etiquette. Korean cuisine is largely based on rice, noodles, tofu, vegetables, fish and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes, banchan (반찬), which accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Every meal is accompanied by numerous banchan. Kimchi(김치), a fermented, usually spicy vegetable dish is commonly served at every meal and is one of the best known Korean dishes. Korean cuisine usually involves heavy seasoning with sesame oil, doenjang (된장), a type of fermented soybean paste, soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, and gochujang (고추장), a hot pepper paste. Soups are also a common part of a Korean meal and are served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal. Soups known as guk (국) are often made with meats, shellfish and vegetables. Similar to guk, tang (탕; 湯) has less water, and is more often served in restaurants. Another type is jjigae (찌개), a stew that is typically heavily seasoned with chili pepper and served boiling hot.
Contemporary music, film and television In addition to domestic consumption, South Korean mainstream culture, including televised drama, films, and popular music, also generates significant exports to various parts of the world. This phenomenon, often called "Hallyu" or the "Korean Wave", has swept many countries in Asia and other parts of the world. Until the 1990s, trot and ballads dominated Korean popular music. The emergence of the rap group Seo Taiji and Boys in 1992 marked a turning point for Korean popular music, also known as K-Pop, as the group incorporated elements of popular musical genres of rap, rock, and techno into its music. Hip hop, dance and ballad oriented acts have become dominant in the Korean popular music scene, though trot is still popular among older Koreans. Many K-Pop stars and groups are also well known abroad, especially in Asia. Since the success of the film Shiri in 1999, Korean film has begun to gain recognition internationally. Domestic film has a dominant share of the market, partly due to the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days a year.
Korean television shows, especially the short form dramatic mini-series called "dramas", have also become popular outside of Korea, becoming another driving trend for wider recognition. The trend has caused some Korean actors to become better known abroad. The dramas are popular mostly in Asia. The stories have tended to have a romance focus, such as You're Beautiful, My Name is Kim Sam Soon, Boys over Flowers, Winter Sonata, Autumn Fairy Tale,Full House, All About Eve. Historical/fantasy dramas have included Dae Jang Geum, The Legend, Goong, andSungkyunkwan Scandal.
Technology culture South Korean corporations Samsung and LG were ranked second and third largest mobile phone companies in the world in the first quarter of 2010, respectively. An estimated 90% of South Koreans own a mobile phone. Aside from placing/receiving calls and text messaging, mobile phones in the country are widely used for watchingDigital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) or viewing websites. Over one million DMB phones have been sold and the three major wireless communications providers SK Telecom, KT, and LG Telecom provide coverage in all major cities and other areas. Wide access to broadband has let online games become a significant part of Korean culture in recent years. StarCraft, a real-time strategy game, is by far the most popular televised computer game in South Korea. Game tournaments, recorded in places like the COEX Mall are often broadcast live on TV stations such as MBCGame andOngamenet. Professional StarCraft players can command considerable salaries in South Korea as members of pro-gaming teams that are sponsored primarily by cell phone providers. PC games are usually played in PC bangs which are basically internet cafes dedicated to online games such as Aion, Lineage II, Sudden Attack, Kart Rider, Maple Story, Mabinogi, World of WarCraft, and StarCraft 2 (the long awaited sequel to the original starcraft which sold over 4.5 million copies in South Korea).
Accommodation & Boarding
Three regular meals per day and a month stay of dormitory/homestay is guaranteed in every LC of Korea.
We have not fully planned out the social program yet, since it's our first year of SCOPE being activated. Social programs are provided differently by LCs. However, two LCs(Seoul and Gyeong-gi Province) may offer similar social programs, because of regional proximity. At this moment, programs including sightseeing (Seoul city tour) and ski-tour(only in winter, Chuncheon) is scheduled. We are planning to add DMZ(Demilitarized Zone) tour in the future, but it may change.
Local & National transportation
South Korea has a market-oriented economy with technologically advanced transportation network consisting of high-speed railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that criss-cross the country. Korea Expressway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route. Korail provides frequent train service to all major South Korean cities. Two rail lines, Gyeongui and Donghae Bukbu Line, to North Korea are now being reconnected. The Korean high-speed rail system, KTX, provides high-speed service along Gyeongbu and Honam Line. Major cities including Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon and Gwangjuhave subway systems. Express bus terminals are available in most cities. Construction of South Korea's largest airport, Incheon International Airport, was completed in 2001. By 2007, the airport was serving 30 million passengers a year. Other international airports include Gimpo, Busan and Jeju. There are also seven domestic airports, and a large number of heliports.
Korean Air, founded in 1962, served 21,640,000 passengers, including 12,490,000 international passengers in 2008. A second carrier,Asiana Airlines, established in 1988, also serves domestic and international traffic. Combined, South Korean airlines serve 297 international routes.Smaller airliners, such as Jeju Air, provide domestic service with lower fares. South Korea is the world's fifth largest nuclear power producer and the second-largest in Asia as of 2010. Nuclear power in South Korea supplies 45% of electricity production and research is very active with investigation into a variety of advanced reactors, including a small modular reactor, a liquid-metal fast/transmutation reactor and a high-temperature hydrogen generation design. Fuel production and waste handling technologies have also been developed locally. It is also a member of the ITER project.
South Korea is an emerging exporter of nuclear reactors, having concluded agreements with the UAE to build and maintain four advanced nuclear reactors,with Jordan for a research nuclear reactor,and with Argentina for construction and repair of heavy-water nuclear reactors. As of 2010, South Korea andTurkey are in negotiations regarding construction of two nuclear reactors. South Korea is also preparing to bid on construction of a light-water nuclear reactor for Argentina. South Korea is not allowed to enrich uranium or develop traditional uranium enrichment technology on its own due to US political pressure, unlike most major nuclear powers such as Japan, Germany, and France, competitors of South Korea in the international nuclear market, providing a noticeable impediment to South Korea's indigenous nuclear industrial undertaking that has sparked occasional diplomatic rows between the two allies. While South Korea is successful in exporting its electricity-generating nuclear technology and nuclear reactors, it cannot capitalize on themarket for nuclear enrichment facilities and refineries, preventing Korea from further expanding its export niche. South Korea has sought unique technologies such as pyroprocessing technology to circumvent these obstacles and seek a more advantageous competition. The US has recently been wary of South Korea's burgeoning nuclear program which South Korea insists will only be for civilian use.
South Korea tends to have a humid continental climate and a humid subtropical climate, and is affected by the East Asian monsoon, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma (장마), which begins end of June through the end of July. Winters can be extremely cold with the minimum temperature dropping below −20 °C in the inland region of the country: in Seoul, the average January temperature range is −7 °C to 1 °C (19 °F to 33 °F), and the average August temperature range is 22 °C to 30 °C (71 °F to 86 °F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Summer can be uncomfortably hot and humid, with temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) in most parts of the country. South Korea has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late-March to early- May, summer from mid-May to early-September, autumn from mid-September to early-November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summertyphoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimeters (54inches) in Seoul to 1,470 millimeters (58 inches) in Busan. There are occasional typhoons that bring high winds and floods.
If you are a nocturnal type of person, Korea is where you definitely should experience.
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